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There is a possibility that a mother whose blood group is Rh negative, carries a child whose blood group is Rh positive, and if mother’s blood comes in contact with the fetus blood, then the mother’s immune system upon finding an antigen foreign to its body, Rh D antigen, will produce antibodies against the Rh parties in the fetus blood which can prove fatal to the fetus.Tests are done during early stages of pregnancy, and if the mother is Rh -ve and the child is Rh ve, then an injection which prevents the mother’s immune system from generating antibodies against Rh D antigen is given during pregnancy.This will ensure that the fetus remains unaffected by the fact that the mother’s blood is Rh negative and ensures a safe delivery of the child.Most humans have Rh D antigen, and are hence Rh positive. So what caused this mutation where some humans stopped having this antigen in their blood? It is interesting to note that Rh -ve or the absence of Rh D producing genes is common in the European population, even though it is rare in rest of the world.This suggests that there might be an evolutionary advantage in this European population over NOT having Rh D antigen, than having it.

So, if the father is Rh positive and mother is Rh negative, then extra care should be taken during pregnancy.If the mother’s immune system has prior knowledge of Rh D antigen, either due to some previous blood transfusion of Rh ve blood group, or if this is not the first pregnancy and the earlier pregnancies carried a Rh positive child, then chances are that the mother’s immune system is already aware of Rh D antigen and has antibodies against it ready, which can be of an immediate concern for the fetus health.